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Compared to schools that did not engage in DI practices they found that those schools that did were positively and significantly associated with differences in student achievement in both mathematics and reading. One of these is Katz’s (2012) Three-Block Model of UDL. Complex though it might seem at times, what remains a constant is a respect for the learning of all and a desire and a willingness to better cater to the needs of all children via the ways in which they learn and we teach them. This is built on the notion that different people optimally receive and transmit information in different ways. Think Inclusive reported on a 2001 study that examined “academic progress for students with disabilities in general education and self-contained classrooms over two years. It has been accepted for inclusion in Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education … The first principle, multiple means of engagement, advocates the presentation of a variety of ways for students to become involved in the learning. These approaches were developed in the late 20th century and were largely derived from models of special education. In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging. They must also accept that difference is part of being human and believe that under the right conditions all children can progress. Katz’s Three-Block Model of UDL is on a good research trajectory and the IPAA is still too new to reasonably expect a large body of evidence to be currently available on its effectiveness. Under this banner, Meyer, Rose, and Gordon (2016) highlight the need to provide students with options for self-regulation, including the promotion of expectations and beliefs that optimize student motivation. The IPAA is a tool that can be used for gathering and assessing evidence about inclusive teaching and learning practice (Florian, 2015). The underlying fundamentals of good teaching are the basis of inclusive education pedagogy. While Jennifer Katz is making good progress in researching the 3-Block model, other pedagogies are in need of greater support in research. Verbal (linguistic): You prefer using words, both in speech and writing. Importantly, some of the challenges that feature in the IPAA were also discerned, in part, through this study. Research supporting each of the models, or a discussion of the need for further research, was provided in each instance. Similarly, use of Gardner’s (1983) Multiple Intelligence Theory has been suggested as one way of reaching a wider group of learners through DI, as each learner in a class would have strengths in a variety of different “intelligence” areas. This responds to the criticism of Pappano (2011) that DI singles out and stigmatizes some students who notice that they are doing different work from other students, and Florian (2015) who notes that in differentiating we identify those on the margins first—an activity that inevitably leads to exclusion. Katz recommends the use of backward design (Wiggins & McTighe, 2006) in developing instructional plans, and the organization of curricula into thematic units that are then sequenced according to a logical framework (for example, conceptually or perhaps seasonally). Aural (auditory-musical): You prefer using sound and music. Allow any struggling auditory learner to take an oral exam instead of a written one. teachers' perception of adapting inclusive education policies and procedures in the Bahamas and its implication for adult education. Demonstrate a repetitive model of desired verbal response to … It is, therefore, aligned with the underlying premise of UDL, with an emphasis on “multiple means” of reaching and teaching students, and has also been shown to align well with the IPAA. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The 9 Best Podcasts for Learning French in 2021, Activities and Ideas for Students with an Auditory Learning Style, The Best Study Techniques for Your Learning Style, Adapt Your Studying Techniques to Your Learning Style, Understanding Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learning Styles, Varying Assignments to Enhance Student Learning Styles, Visual Learning Style: Traits and Study Strategies, The Kinesthetic Learning Style: Traits and Study Strategies, The Auditory Learning Style - A Resource List, The 8 Best Podcasts for Learning Spanish in 2021, Make the Most of Your Tactile Learning Style, Study Strategies for Every Learning Style, How to Make a Small Space Productive for Studying, How to Use Sticky Notes to Remember What You Read, Why Taking Notes in Class Is So Important, How to Avoid Distraction and Stay Focused, How to Study for Objective Test Questions, M.Ed., Education Administration, University of Georgia, B.A., History, Armstrong State University, Knack for understanding changes in tone of voice, Skilled at oral reports and class presentations, Able to work through complex problems by talking out loud. With DI, which Florian (2015) views as a conventional approach, instruction is directed at a level that might be suitable to most learners, while modifications are made to support those who require it. Does the approach adequately respect culture, religion, and other areas of diversity and allow children to express their particular orientation? What impact might it have on the identity of a learner? In this study they were able to discern examples of inclusive practice that did not single out particular students, and these practices were more or less in alignment with what later came to be the IPAA. The model itself was developed as the result of significant research into inclusive pedagogy over many years by Lani Florian and colleagues. 2. 47.1% of students with disabilities in general education made progress in math, compared to 34% in self-contained classes. should be excluded. Do you prefer lectures over long reading assignments? (2016) recommend that teachers provide options for executive functions, such as working with students as guides in goal setting, planning, and the development of learning or task-oriented strategies. To quote Bouillet (Bouillet, 2009), inclusive education can be thought of as a philoso- There are numerous immersive and collaborative online environments in which students can engage with one another, and such environments and contexts are highly familiar to children who now often grow up engaged in collaborative online gaming at home. Inclusive education can be viewed as a process of removing barriers to participation. The third assumption is that teachers continually develop creative and new ways of working with others. The third principle of UDL relates to the provision of multiple means of action and expression (Rose et al., 2014). inclusive model; the needs of students who have more active and involved parents, have a better chance of getting met, than those of students with uninvolved parents; and often this model is used to stave off a confrontational action. Katz’s Three-Block model offers a different perspective on UDL, while at the same time honoring, incorporating, and in no way contradicting the key work of David Rose and colleagues in this area. In this respect schools have always been conceived as elite institutions and in many ways remain so today. The process of transferring special education pedagogical practices to inclusive contexts, if we engage in this process at all, must be done thoughtfully and always with the awareness that such practices were nurtured in segregated environments and may themselves serve to perpetuate segregation. In order to be inclusive and to avoid segregation, all school contexts can become more responsive to children with a diverse range of abilities, cultures, genders, religions, and other situations and issues that present in the classroom. Techniques involved in DI are seen by some as being a subset of the UDL approach, and indeed the two approaches are perhaps closely connected in some respects. Here are some of the strengths that will help them achieve success in the classroom: Those with an auditory learning style like to speak and hear others speak in order to learn, but they may have trouble reading silently or staying engaged in a completely quiet classroom. Every child has a right to inclusive education, including children with disabilities. This principle revolves around communication and the need for both teachers and learners to consider how to best communicate to groups with a variety of different communicative styles and receptive capacities. The article focuses on the main concepts in Vygotsky`s theory on dysontogenesis (presented as a social constructionist view on disability), constituting the cultural-historical psychological basis for the Russian model in the contemporary inclusive preschool education. Each of the five senses may be employed here in an effort to produce a holistic style of communication. The first assumption is that difference is accounted for as an essential aspect of human development in any conceptualization of learning. From the perspective of teachers, Katz (2015) found that a group of 58 Canadian teachers who had adopted the Three-Block Model of UDL felt that this model had improved their practice and self-efficacy perceptions related to inclusive education, as well as reducing their workload and increasing their job satisfaction. This requires more of teachers in terms of professional skill, judgment, adaptability, flexibility, and willingness to grow as professionals. Professionals must therefore reject deterministic views of ability and the idea that the presence of some children will impede the progress of other children. The use of technology, linked in this article to the IPAA and UDL, but also very apparent in DI practice, provides students with a wide variety of ways to interact, investigate, check for understanding, and immerse themselves in learning. It is clear that whatever principles are adopted, more research is required on the effectiveness of various models of inclusive education pedagogy. Carol Ann Tomlinson is a leader in the area of differentiated learning and professor of educational leadership, foundations, and policy at the University of Virginia. When ongoing assessment data indicate that a student is confused about, has learning gaps in, or has mastered essential knowledge, understanding, or skills, the teacher should use that information to plan upcoming instruction. Reading progress was comparable in both settings. She also points out some of the dangers of a convoluted curriculum (some students making papier-mâché models in history classes) and the pressures on teachers to target and meet the needs of all. Critical discourse analysts are “interested in the ways in which texts of different kinds reproduce power and inequalities in society” (Perakyla, 2005, p. 871). This involves a customized presentation of information as required, and a reliance not only on verbal-auditory forms of communication, but also visual, tactile, etc. https://resilienteducator.com/classroom-resources/inclusive-education Third, the provision of options for perception is important. The idea is to address those needs—whether for remediation or acceleration—that, if unattended to, will most likely impede student growth. On the whole smaller-scale studies appear to be more prevalent. With respect to formative assessment they argued, with supporting research, that “technology-supported formative assessment can provide rapid input to teachers and feedback to students and support teachers’ decisions regarding the pace of instruction and time spent on curricular content” (p. 218). This is no easy task and this lack of clarity may have led to “wiggle room” that some education jurisdictions have taken advantage of by using the language of inclusion but in reality changing little in order to promote the practice. However, due to the sometimes individualized nature of the approach, large-scale studies are in the minority, with many focusing on single cases or a small number of cases. Second, they stress the need for the provision of options that encourage students to sustain effort and persistence. With UDL the provision of “multiple means” is critical to each step of the process, from promoting student engagement, to representing and communicating, and then on to student action and expression. Second, they advocate for providing options for language and mathematical expressions and symbols. implementation in contemporary inclusive education. In particular, the recent development of the IPAA Framework means that there is much to be done in terms of evaluating methods of implementation and general effectiveness. This block recognizes the importance of examining and changing school and school systems structures and policies that might lead to exclusion of some children. Florian and Spratt’s (2013) IPAA framework is based on three broad assumptions, with each assumption being linked to associated concepts and actions. in designing instruction. 2. It is not only for students with disabilities, but rather is applicable to all students, providing for those who are gifted in particular areas equally as well as for those who may still be developing in those areas. What is being taken for granted in the pedagogical approach under consideration? The reader is encouraged to apply a critical lens to a reading of the various inclusive pedagogical approaches described below. This can be especially effective if done in collaboration with teaching colleagues so that the various issues can be explored from a range of viewpoints through dialogue. The negative impact on teachers in terms of stress and workload has been one of the objections raised to the employment of some inclusive pedagogies (see, e.g., Brackenreed, 2008). The term learning style itself is open to criticism. The facilitation of multiple means of engagement involves discerning student traits and catering instruction to suit the wide variety of interests, abilities, learning styles, etc., that are present in a classroom. Without effective pedagogy we have no operative method of education and, without purposeful and effective inclusive pedagogy, we have no basis for meaningful inclusion. Key features of the School Inclusion Model are: A new frontloading allocation model for Special Needs Assistants (SNAs). Multiple means of reaching students must be employed for all students. Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all. Katz’s model builds on the CAST work, incorporating it into a middle “block” that is bookended by socioemotional learning (Block 1) and systems and structures that support the process (Block 3). No-one. Potential challenges are identified, and finally sources of evidence are outlined. 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